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Spc. David Hopkins, Public Affairs Office

President Bush makes historic visit to Carlisle Barracks

May 24, 2004 -- All eyes were on Carlisle Barracks May 24 as President George W. Bush laid out the plans for the future of Iraq and in the process made a bit of history.

    President Bush's visit marked the first time in 210 years that a president has visited Carlisle Barracks during his term in office.

    "James Buchanan attended Dickinson College in Carlisle from 1807-09 before his term as president," said Dr. Richard Sommers, Military History Institute.

    After his presidency, Dwight D. Eisenhower visited four times, June 14 and Sept. 24, 1965, Oct. 10, 1966 and Sept 20, 1967, to speak to the War College's graduating classes. Gerald R. Ford also visited the War College in 1979 after his presidency.

    "Ford was here to give a major speech against an arms control treaty that President Carter started," said Sommers.

     On Oct. 4, 1794 a different president named George visited town. George Washington visited to head off an uprising of citizens against the excise tax, which was known as the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

    "Farmers refused to pay the tax on whiskey," said Sommers. "The Pa. and N.J. militia were here to enforce the laws. Washington did not lead the troops, but his presence underscored the importance of the laws."

    An anxious crowd of students, faculty and staff, Soldiers, media and other guests mingled in Thorpe Hall, under the watchful eyes of the Secret Service as they waited for the president to arrive and deliver his speech.

  "It's exciting to see our commander in chief in person," said Sgt. John McLaughlin, who works in the Department of Distance Education.

    At approximately 7:30 p.m. the President's helicopter landed on Indian Field and President Bush, along with Dr. Condoleezza Rice, the National Security Advisor and others, stepped out. Maj. Gen. David Huntoon, Command Sgt. Maj. David Roman and several others were waiting to greet the president. 

    At 8 p.m. President Bush addressed the crowd, which went live to millions of people around the world.

    His speech dealt with the current situation in Iraq, America's efforts to help the Iraqi people and his plan to achieve freedom for Iraq.

    "There are difficult days ahead," said President Bush, "but no enemy will stop Iraq's progress."

    Bush said he would maintain the current troop level of 138,000 in Iraq "as long as necessary" and he would send more troops if they are needed. He said the troop-level increase from a previous level of 115,000, was due to "the recent increase in violence."

    Bush also spoke of the sophistication of the Iraqi militia, their non-conventional fighting methods and how they discard their uniforms and use religious buildings to disguise their weapons and people.

    "There are difficult days ahead, and the way forward may sometimes appear chaotic," Bush stated. "The terrorists and Saddam loyalists would rather see many Iraqis die than have any live in freedom."

    Bush feels the people of Iraq still hope for a free nation.

    "When people are given a choice, they choose lives of freedom over lives of fear," said Bush.

    Want more photos?


Andrea Cassell, Public Affairs Office

Going for the 'Gold'


May 26, 2004 -- Amanda Johnson has done more in her 12 years as a Girl Scout than sell cookies. As a result of her hard work she was presented the Gold Award, the highest achievement in Girl Scouting, at a ceremony on May 26 at the Carlisle Barracks Chapel. 

    "Girl Scouting has always been a constant in my life," said Johnson. "Everywhere I move-it is the first place I go to get involved.

    Johnson wanted to introduce other Girl Scouts in the community to her other passion, dance. In workshop titled, "Discover the World of Dance," she taught the technique of ballet and jazz to 80 girls ages five to 12. It was to be a one-day event, but because of bad weather and continued interest, Johnson organized four sessions.

    "It was a lot of hard work, but it was worth it," said Johnson.

    By earning this award, a Senior Girl Scout has demonstrated her special commitment to excellence in herself, her community and her future. Recipients must complete several activities covering career exploration, leadership skills, community service and specialized interest projects, followed by a comprehensive Gold Award project selected and designed by the Girl Scout based on her skills and interests.

    Less than three percent of all Senior Girl Scouts receive the Gold Award. As a Cadette Girl Scout, Johnson also earned the Silver Award, Girl Scoutings second highest achievement.

    "It is impressive that in the last nine months she could adjust to a new home and school and accomplish this," said Ashlee Nelson, Senior Girl Scout of Troop 619.

    Johnson will be honored at the Annual Girl Scout Gold Award Event sponsored by the Hemlock Council and Community Bank at the Hershey Lodge and Convention Center on May 27.

    "She is great and very organized," said Amanda Shrader, Cadette Girl Scout of Troop 619. "She added a lot to the group."  

    Johnson, daughter of Lt. Col. Charles and Virginia Johnson, is a senior at Carlisle High School where she is a member of the National Honor Society and the National Art Honor Society. Johnson plans to attend Shippensburg University in the fall.

    Each member of Girl Scout in Troop 619 was recognized for their hard work and dedication to the troop and the community. Taylor Gentry, daughter of Lt. Col. Robin and Cydnee Gentry, and Shrader, daughter of Master Sgt. David and Mary Shrader, received the Silver Award.

    "This is a model troop," said Mary Winslow, troop organizer for Carlisle Barracks. "They have done more than most troops by meeting every week to plan events, fundraise and serve the community."

    For more information about Girl Scouts at Carlisle Barracks, contact Winslow at 249-4280.


National Day of Mourning

     President Bush has declared Friday, June 11, a national day of mourning for former President Ronald Reagan.  The USAWC and Carlisle Barracks will mark this observance by closing non-mission essential operations and by limiting other operations on the post. 

     *All National Security Seminar activities for Friday, June 11 are cancelled.  The Commandants reception on Thursday evening, June 10, will be the final NSS event of the week. Guests are free to depart at their convenience after that time. 

     * Staff sections supporting graduation preparation and USAWC student outprocessing will remain open on Friday, June 11. Staffing will be determined by section and individuals will receive duty instructions from their supervisors. 

     * Employees on duty Friday will receive Holiday pay (double time).  Those not on duty will not be charged leave. More detailed guidance from the CPO is expected regarding mandatory reporting requirements and that information will be disseminated through supervisory channels as it becomes available. 

     * The status of Carlisle Barracks services organizations for Friday, June 11 is detailed below:

Commissary - closed

Post Exchange and Concessions modified hours of operation from 9 a.m.- 4 p.m.

Golf Course will remain open - normal hours of operation 

Pool - will remain open - normal hours of operation

Fitness Center - modified hours of operation from noon- 5 p.m.

Child Development Center  - will remain open, but will close early once all children are picked up and there is no more demand.

Youth Services Summer Camp - will be open for the first day of camp. 

Letort View Community Center - closed.

ITR, Lodging will be open and will follow a weekend schedule

Skill Development CenterDCA/FMD Admin - closed

Army Community Service - closed

Education Services - closed

Bowling Center and Outdoor Recreation - closed

Dunham U.S. Army Health Clinic

No scheduled appointments

Pharmacy and medical records - open

Outprocessing - open

Dental Clinic

No scheduled appointments

Dental emergencies and outprocessing -  open

Garrison offices supporting out processing and graduation - open with minimum staffing


Post Chapel information

  The Chapel Sanctuary will be open from  9 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. on Friday for those who would like to make a visit and pray for President Reagan. People will be able to enter the chapel through the front doors only. There will be no noon Catholic Mass on Friday because it would conflict with the State Funeral which is scheduled to begin at 11:30 AM in the National Cathedral.

    The Chapel business offices will be closed. Entrances into the office areas and the education wing will be locked.


Spc. David Hopkins, Public Affairs Office

A commitment for better post housing


May 13, 2004-A project that will bring larger and better housing to post was kicked off May 13 with a partner signing ceremony.

    The Residential Communities Initiative, is a partnership between the Department of the Army and private sector contractors to improve housing for military families.   

    "The current housing is entirely inadequate for the senior leaders and soldiers who are doing so much for our country," said Maj. Gen. David Huntoon, U.S. Army War College commandant, as he stood in front of a small house that was converted from a latrine years ago.

    The RCI program is currently underway at numerous military installations around the country to include Fort Carson, Colo., Fort Hood, Texas and Fort Bragg, N.C.

     Many of the housing structures on post will be torn down and rebuilt to supply better housing for military families on Carlisle Barracks. The historic homes on post will also be updated, while allowing them to keep their historic appearance.

    The civilian contractor that has been selected to do the work is American Eagle Communities.

    "A big part of our success is that we think out into the future," said Kathryn Thompson, AEC development manager. "What are families going to need 30 years from now.40 years from now?"

    The Army will be working closely with AEC to develop a plan that will work for everyone. AEC, in conjunction with the Army is working to build more than just homes

    "It's truly a partnership effort," said William Armbruster, deputy assistant Secretary of the Army for Privatization and Partnerships. "We are not simply building houses, it's a community we are building."

    "We speak with one vision," said Thompson. "We build quality homes.quality communities."

    There are several things to be done before the destruction and construction begins. The next step in the project will be crafting a Community Development and Management Plan. This will take place through October 2004. In April of 2005, AEC will assume operations of on-post family housing and will begin demolition and construction of new housing and the renovation of historic homes.

Community Forum

     Carlisle Barracks housing residents and military families met with representatives from AEC May 17 at the Letort View Community Center to discuss future plans and provide input for the RCI project. Some of the questions and issues addressed at this forum are listed below.

     Other questions can be submitted directly to the RCI office located at 312 Lovell Ave or by calling  245-4520.


Q: Are you building more or fewer homes on post?

A. Our end state is 277 new homes. There will be fewer homes on post, but if you look at the current occupancy, there are only about 250 homes currently occupied of the 314 available on post.


Q: Will you be displacing people who live in historic homes while you renovate them?

A: We try to build homes ahead of time so we won't have to displace families at all. But if we have to move a family, we will only move that family one time directly into the new house. For the historical units, we will renovate homes as they are vacated or if necessary, move a family into another home. Those details will have to be worked out with the CDMP.


Q. Maintenance. Does that include appliance replacement and what is the schedule for that?

A: We will have to look in the inventory, but typically we replace appliances every six years.


Q. What arrangements have been made for those civil service employees who work in housing and are a few years from their retirement?

A: That situation will be handled just like any other displaced civil service employees based on their seniority, jobs available on Carlisle Barracks and other criteria established by the federal government.


Q. Who is in charge of housing now?

A: The post is still in charge of housing right now. At a point we will transition all of our housing to American Eagle.


Q: Carlisle Barracks is a designated Tree City. What are your commitments to retaining that?

A: We do have a commitment to the environment. We will try to retain as many trees as we can, but there will be some trees coming down if the plan is to put a house in a spot where a tree is. Also, trees that are notorious for growing into septic systems will be removed, like Weeping Willows.


Q. Will there be a self-help or U-Do-It center?

A. We recommend limited self-help because we would be happy to come out and do the repairs and it helps keep all the homes at the same level of maintenance.




Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Military, community families expand across world


May 18, 2004 -- If you could experience the culture, cuisine, religion, language and ethnicity of a foreign country for one year at no out of pocket cost would you do it?

    That's just the opportunity E. J. Nichols, Army Col. Linda Kruger, Navy Lt. Cdr (ret.) Ed Kemp and Joan Markovich has taken advantage of for several years. Each family has sponsored an international student and his family attending the U.S. Army War College.

    "The sponsorship program involves volunteers from within Carlisle Barracks and the greater Carlisle/Harrisburg area who provide their knowledge, assistance, and friendship to International Fellows and their families who attend the USAWC," said Col. Roy Hawkins, director, USAWC IF program.

    International Fellows have been attending the USAWC since 1978. Community volunteers play a critical role in their reception and transition into the U.S., according to Hawkins. Like the name implies, each IF family is placed with military and community members who assist them with everything from getting to the grocery store to finding the nearest playground.

     "The first six to eight weeks immediately after the IFs arrive is extremely critical," said Kruger, faculty member. "This is when you need to bond and 'get over the shyness and stiffness.'  Tis no magic formula - you have to find a balance, but you have to be there for them."

    "Getting them set-up and accustomed to American ways of living and to this area is very important," said Lisa Hathcox, Nichols's daughter. Four generations of the Nichols family have been a part of the IF sponsorship program since 1993.

    Each year, senior military officers from more than 40 different countries are extended an invitation from the Army Chief of Staff to attend. Officers are selected on a basis similar to the selection of U.S. officers for attendance at senior service colleges. The academic year is comprised of studying, research, and fellowship as these officers are exposed to and instructed in areas ranging from military concepts and doctrine to national and theater level strategies.

    In return, the IFs bring culture, awareness, diversity, military policy and strategy, and critical thinking concepts from their nations to share with students and faculty.

    "The diversity that the IFs bring to this community is definitely a positive aspect of the program," Hawkins said. "Not only do the volunteers enhance the lives of the IF and his family, but the sponsors also reap great benefits from their interaction with the IFs.  Learning about other cultures and countries tremendously broadens one's perspective, and the volunteers gain a greater appreciation for the world around them."

    For the Nichols' family, the nature and beauty of Africa is very close to their hearts.  The majority of the IF families they have sponsored have been from African countries, particularly Kenya.

    "The Nkaissary family - they were so outgoing," said Nichols, chief, USAWC security office. "They truly became family."

    "Each family always brought an interesting challenge and perspective," Hathcox said. "With the Nkaissarys', it was an instant companionship."

    The Nichols family recently visited with the Nkaissary family, who were part of the USAWC Class of 1997, in their homeland of Kenya, and is planning to visit another IF family in New Zealand this fall.

    "What you give -- always comes back," Nichols said.

    That is the same concept and approach that prompted Kruger and her husband to sponsor IF students at the Command and General Staff College in 1995-1997, and then again here since 2002.

    "My husband's and my experiences, interests and tastes are very international," Kruger, said. "We feel this is an area where we can contribute within the organization. And, we like to make people feel at home - wherever we are and with whomever we engage."

    "This is one of the finest programs that the U.S. military has been connected with," said Kemp.  Kemp and his wife, Sonya, have been community sponsors since 1998.

    "It's the most satisfying people to people program and we are very proud to be a part of this," Kemp said.

    Many international families are also excited about this program and what it means to students and families from other countries.

    "When we got to the airport at Harrisburg, we got a hug; and the hugs haven't stopped," said Lt. Col. Timothy Keating, IF from New Zealand. "It's been just like being with family."

    Keating and his family were sponsored by the Nichols' family and stated that one of the most important lessons he has learned from his time in the U.S. is that he has a greater understanding of the American people and their values, dreams, hopes, aspirations.

    "We see the real people, not the politicians or what is portrayed on commercial television and movies, but the average, everyday citizen. We've learned all the procedures, but it's more important to learn the culture to know why people think the way they think, and the sponsorship program educates both countries that way," Keating said.

    The rewards of the program go beyond the academic year. The friendships formed are lifelong connections.

    "We still connect and visit with our IFs from our Leavenworth, Mo. days, and we are planning to visit our Carlisle and Leavenworth IFs when we head back to Europe this summer," Kruger said. "Each IF relationship has turned into more than the traditional Christmas card exchange."

    "We became sponsors in 1988 to become acquainted with Latino families, as my husband, John, is a Spanish teacher," said Joan Markovich. "We have enjoyed entertaining the families and being invited to their homes to enjoy their customs and cuisine.

    "We enjoyed the family from El Salvador last year and helped them to celebrate their daughter's first birthday.  We got some practice with little Gabriela, because now we have a granddaughter of our own," Markovich said.

    "Being a sponsor can be one of the most rewarding things a person can do while serving and living here on post and in the community.  For a relatively small amount of time and effort, the sponsor gains a tremendous amount of appreciation and gratitude from our international guests," Hawkins said.

    Additionally, the sponsor has an exceptional opportunity to make a positive, lasting impression upon the internationals about the U.S."

    Applications are now being accepted for the Class of 2005 IFs and are available in the cafeteria of Root Hall, or contact the IF office at 245-4830/3371 for more information.


Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Post contractor injured in accident

 May 19, 2004 - A Strategic Studies Institute contractor was injured in an accident yesterday after being struck by a car as he was walking down the sidewalk on Ashburn Drive near Bliss Hall.

    Justin Treher, 24, was struck by a Silver-colored Buick after the driver of the car allegedly drove onto the sidewalk, hitting Treher and throwing him a distance of about 10 feet.

    Treher was taken to Carlisle Regional Hospital by Cumberland Goodwill Fire and Rescue EMS where he was treated and released. The driver was issued a $25 fine for careless driving by the Carlisle Barracks Military Police and the accident is still under investigation.

    Treher has been employed as the assistant editor for electronic publications with SSI since October 2003. He is from Chambersburg, Pa.



Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

High school, college students receive $22,900 in scholarship awards

   May 20, 2004 -- Thirty-eight Carlisle area high school seniors and college students were awarded scholarship money in ceremonies held May 17 on post.

    Sponsored by the Carlisle Barracks Spouses Club, U.S. Army War College Alumni Association and the Thrift Shop, 19 high school seniors and 19 college students were presented with merit scholarships ranging from $200 to $1,500.

    "We are very pleased to be able to provide funds for this great cause," said Col. (ret.) Mike Pearson, USAWC Alumni Association. "All of the students truly deserve the awards they are receiving."

    The annual merit scholarship program is open to any college or high school graduating son or daughter of an active duty, retired or deceased member of the armed forces whose sponsor resides in the Carlisle Barracks area. A scholarship evaluation committee selects recipients through an application process that details academic merit, volunteer work, leadership, character, school and community involvement, and an essay.

    Funds were raised for this program through volunteer efforts in the community and donations by industry sponsors. The Carlisle First Command Office also presented a scholarship check for $1,000 to Lauren M. Snow from Carlisle High School.

    The recipients of the 2004 Merit Scholarship are:

High School Seniors

Connie L. Barko -BBS

Jeffery M. Colpo - Carlisle High School

Michael V. Cronin - Boiling Springs High School

Eric C.  Eikmeier - Carlisle High School

Kenneth F. Fisher III -- Carlisle High School

Rebecca L. Fowler -- Carlisle High School

Morgan M. Fulton -- Carlisle High School

Michelle E. Heard -- Carlisle High School

Amanda F. Johnson -- Carlisle High School

Charles J. Kacsur III -- Carlisle High School

Phillip L. Knight - Cumberland Valley High School

Megan M. Matheny -- Carlisle High School

Ashlee P. Nelson -- Carlisle High School

Eric M. Neunaber -- Carlisle High School

Sean G. Phillips -- Carlisle High School

Lauren A. Sheppard -- Carlisle High School

Lauren M. Snow -- Carlisle High School

Casey Stringham -- Carlisle High School

Benjamin L. Waring -- Carlisle High School


College Students

Nickolas A. Auger - Drexel University

Richard J. Barr - Millersville University

Amanda N. Bloomer - Monmouth College

Kathryn L. Clough - Southwestern University

Melissa L. Colpo - Penn State University

Andrea B. Cook - University of Pittsburgh

Allison B. Cook - Towson University

Donovan D. Groh - Syracuse University

Sarah E. Johnson - Cedarville University

Kathleen M. Kerr - University of Notre Dame

Katherine A. Koivisto - Oklahoma Christian University

Amy L. McClung - Pierce Community College

Lauren L. McCreedy - Mary Washington College

Lauren A. Meinhart - Rochester Institute of Technology

Joanne M. Pearson - Siena College

Gail A. Pearson - Mount St. Mary's College

Ryan D. Sajac - Haverford College

Gwen J. Thomas - Kansas State University

Kathryn E. Willmann - Albright College


Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

Reich saves money, time with flawless VTC coordination



May 17, 2004 - Chances are if you've been a part of a Video Teleconference in the Collins Hall suite you know who Tracy Reich is, if not you probably will if you participate in one soon. 

      As a VTC operator, Reich is responsible for making sure that the schedule for the VTCs is properly maintained, and that the equipment is up and running when the conference is scheduled to go. Participants of the Unified Quest 2004 exercise held early this month definitely noticed Reich as she was given four general officer coins by some of the exercise participants. 

    "I was really surprised at first," said Reich. "Actually, I wasn't even sure what they were when they were first given to me, I had to ask some of my co-workers. It surprised me because I didn't do anything different than I normally do, I didn't treat this conference any different."

    Even if she wasn't sure of what the coins were for or what they meant, her efforts making sure that the VTC's that come from Collins Hall run flawlessly isn't ignored.

    "Tracy is doing a phenomenal job, said Mike Miller, Remtech program support manager. "The VTC requirements are increasing at a tremendous pace and I expect us to do nearly twice as many VTCs this year as we did last year. Tracy has a long track record of excellent attention to detail, she is a great catch for Remtech Services and Carlisle Barracks."   

    Reich previously worked in the Student Affairs Office at Dickinson before coming to Carlisle Barracks. Being a VTC operator was something new to her, but some of the work was similar to work she had done before.

    "There's a Department of Defense-wide database that keeps track of when and where a VTC is supposed to take place," Reich said. "I make sure that before the VTC starts, there is someone on the other end, and that the participants know when it's going to happen." Reich said that she handles an average of 40 VTCs per month.

    "Of course once we schedule a VTC the technology part is out of my hands," she said. "Then we just hope and make sure that everything runs as smooth as it's supposed to." Reich pointed out that there seems to be a larger number of VTCs being done as they are more cost effective. 

    "Temporary duty dollars are drying up and the operational tempo is keeping folks tied to their current duty station, so VTC is increasingly becoming the preferred alternative to expensive and time consuming travel," said Miller. "Tracy's hard work makes sure that they work as well as possibly here." 

    As a result of the hard work she has put in, Reich has been promoted and will now be in charge of coordinating all of the VTC sites on Carlisle Barracks, instead of just the ones in Collins Hall.

    "I will be taking over soon as the VTC administrator, and will now have to make sure everything runs smooth on the other 11 VTC sites on post," Reich said. "It will be a lot more to keep track of, and I'm looking forward to this new challenge."

New VTC operator at Collins Hall

    Of course, this doesn't mean that the VTC suite in Collins Hall will be left unattended. Leslie Hluszti will take over for Reich after a period of training.

    "I've been trying to learn as much from her as I can," said Hlustzi. "There's been a lot of on-the-job training but I'm really looking forward to it." Hluszti previously worked at Members 1st Federal Credit Union.    

    "I have full confidence that Leslie's intelligence, maturity, professionalism, and attitude will make her a great VTC Operator," said Miller.




Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Garrison dollars cut to fund war effort


May 19, 2004 -- Approximately $1.3 million of the U.S. Army Garrison's operating budget for 2004 has been cut by the U.S. Installation Management Agency after they were directed to divert more than $36 million to help fund the War on Iraq.

    Because of these cuts in funding several programs, activities and conferences have been or will be cancelled according to Lt. Col. John Koivisto, garrison commander. Koivisto addressed all tenant commanders and supervisors May 14 on the financial status of post for the next four months. 

    For the remainder of the fiscal year, IMA will not fund military or civilian training.  Employees will be encouraged to take maximum advantage of training funded dollars available through career program channels and the Army G1. IMA also plans to achieve budgetary savings by canceling all IMA-generated conferences and meetings requiring expenditure of temporary duty funds, and will use video teleconferences and conference calls to meet communication and coordination requirements. 

     There are four principal areas where immediate changes will be noticed on post from now until the end of the fiscal year. First, there will be no new hires. This does not prevent lateral movement or promotions, according to Koivisto, but promotions will be "very, very closely scrutinized."

    "We are not anticipating lay-offs, RIFs, terminations or curtailment of anything currently on going," Koivisto said.

    The garrison command was required to cancel the summer hire program for 2004. Currently working student employees and those scheduled to return for summer work will be released or placed in a leave-without-pay status. Only activities that were not dependent on garrison dollars to pay for their summer employees will continue with the program.

    "The summer hire program cancellations will only effect IMA activities on the installation. Other activities will continue the summer hire program as directed," said Rhonda Newcomer from the Directorate of Civilian Personnel.

     Purchases with IMPAC credit cards below the Garrison level may be subject to closer scrutiny and approval.

    "We have very specific guidelines provided to garrison by IMA to achieve cost savings. Keep your chins up; we will get through this," said Koivisto.

    Senior Army leaders have stated that we are "a nation at war," and that war is expensive. The USAG will implement cost-saving measures such as trimming custodial contracts and resetting thermostats in administrative areas. All employees are asked to turn their computer monitors and lights off at the end of the workday. These changes in funding do not have any impact on the Training and Doctrine Command or the U. S. Army War College as of yet, according to Koivisto.



Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

Dunham parking lot near completion 


May 18, 2004 - Patients and employees of the Dunham U.S. Army Health Clinic will have some more room to park in mid-June as construction nears an end on a new 38 spot parking lot.

    "I'm glad that they're adding more parking here," said Gail Jones, military family member. "It seems like every time I come here it gets harder and harder to find a place to park."

    The clinic has doubled in size and the number of patients has increased greatly since the current parking lot was built, said Maj. Joseph Vancosky, deputy commander for administration at Dunham Health Clinic.

    "Any patient that visits the clinic realizes the need for the new parking lot," said Vancosky. "We are short spaces for patients and staff."

    Many people have to park in other lots on post and walk to the clinic, which is making them late for appointments, said Vancosky.

    A transportation study was performed by Parsons Corp. who determined that there was a need for additional parking at the clinic, said Tarman.

    The construction, which began in April is being done by Lobar Inc., who has done other construction projects around post, including the remodeling of Thorpe Hall, said Bill Tarman, engineer with the post Directorate of Public Works.

    The parking lot of the Bachelors Office Quarters will also be re-aligned to match the new Dunham lot.

    "The opening on the lot will be moved and the spaces will be re-lined," said Tarman. "This way the lots match and there aren't any problems with traffic flow."

    In addition to the new spaces, there will be additional lights and sidewalks installed to the area.

    "We're adding some sidewalks so that pedestrians walking along Gibner Road won't have to walk in the street, and this way we can also add some grass between the road and the sidewalks," said Tarman.

    "Paving should start the week on May 18, assuming there are no weather-related delays," said Tarman.


USAWC crest restored by Class of 2004

The refurbished USAWC crest on the side of Bliss Hall can be seen in the right photo. The repairs for the crest were paid for by the Class of 2004 as a gift to the Army War College.





Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

Robots invade Carlisle Barracks

    May 13, 2004 -- It looked like a scene out of a science-fiction movie as the robots descended on Indian Field May 13. It wasn't an invasion from outer space though, it was a Robotics Day hosted by the Information Warfare Group for the students and staff of the U.S. Army War College.

    The day-long event, which kicked off with a lecture in Reynolds Theater, was the culminations result of months of effort by the IWG, part of the Center for Strategic Leadership.

    "It all started off as a small demonstration for students in the technology electives," said John Roley, an S3 Inc. contractor who works in Collins Hall. "Then it kept growing and growing as more people became involved and became what you see here today."

    The purpose of the event was to showcase some of the technologies of tomorrow for the future leaders of tomorrow said Dave Cammons, an education specialist at CSL.

    "We wanted to be able to show the students some of the advances in technologies that the Army and civilian companies are coming up with to make their jobs easier," Cammons said. "There is a good chance these students will encounter some of these types of machines in the near future."

    Displays included everything from "PackBots," small robots designed for urban operations,  and can be used to survey locations and to detect gunshots to an Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle, a seven-ton vehicle that can remotely operated to investigate areas too dangerous to send a manned vehicle.

     Even with all of the new technologies present, the most popular display was the Segway Human Transporter. The two-wheeled, one-person machine was available for people to try out, and take for a ride around the grass field.

    "It was pretty cool," said Scott Daniels, a 13-year-old family member. "You can stand on it, ride anywhere you want and not have to worry about falling down."

    Another popular demonstration was the small, automatic grass-cutting machine by the AAI Corporation. The machine operated without human control, and cut grass inside of a roped off areas. It's equipped with special sensors that allow the machine to cut certain areas and not others, all without human direction.

    "It'd be nice to have some of those down in DPW," joked Tom Kelly, post directorate of public works director. The machines can be purchased through commercial retailers at an average cost of $2,000.

    One of the benefits of the Robotics Day being held at Carlisle Barracks was the ability of the students to be able to see the equipment up close.

    "I've been working out of the Pentagon for the last several years as a comptroller, and the vendors constantly bring things to display," said. Lt. Col. Leon Smith, USAWC Class of 2004 member. "But it's tough to get a feel for what they're working on because of the limited space of the Pentagon's courtyard. Here there is enough space to see everything and what this stuff can do."

    Robotics Day included exhibits from the Robotics and Computer Science departments at Carnegie Mellon University, the Army Research Laboratory, AAI Corporation and the Rapid Equipping Force.




Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

Post recognizes excellence at awards ceremony


    May 18, 2004 -- A packed Letort View Community Center host to the Installation Quarterly Awards on May 18, where excellence, hard work and dedication were rewarded.

    "Carlisle Barracks has been a very busy place the last few months and this is by far the best group of people I've had the privilege to honor," said Lt. Col. John Koivisto, garrison commander. 

    "It's a honor to be here today to honor these men and women who work so hard every day," said Maj. Gen. David Huntoon, USAWC commandant. "This is our way of saying thanks for all that you do for this great country." Huntoon also shared some words from the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Acting Secretary of the Army.


Never in recent memory have our Army Values, the Soldier's Creed, and our Warrior Ethos been more important for us to reflect upon than today. Our Army is serving our Nation with great courage and honor during very dangerous times. We enjoy great support and the confidence of the American People, whom we serve, and we are respected around the globe. In view of current events, we must re-double our efforts-hold our heads high-and drive on to accomplish our individual tasks and collective missions. Integrity is non-negotiable. Everyone has leadership responsibilities when it comes to the Legal, Moral, and Ethical. Discipline is doing what's right when no one is watching. We are proud of you and our Army. Drive on!


Peter J. Schoomaker
General, United States Army

Chief of Staff


R. L. Brownlee
Acting Secretary of the Army




Award winners included:


Staff Sgt. Roy D. Carte, Jr., DSES               NCO of the Year, FY 03

Staff Sgt. Romayne Leake, CIO                   NCO of the Quarter, 2nd Qtr FY 04

Ann D. Walker, Dunham U.S. Army Health Clinic    2003 Civilian Employee of the Year

Sarah M. Brooks, DDE                               Civilian Employee of the Quarter, 1st Qtr Calendar Year 2004


Commanding Generals Bonus Program Awards:

Deamer Davidson, DPW

Gary Hunst, DSES

Dixie Magni, DOIM

Rene Singley, DPO

Anne-Marie Wolf, ASAP


Achievement Medals for Civilian Service:

Gary L. Cassell, DSES                          

Nicholas T. Mikkelson, III, DSES              

Patrick D. Shane, DSES  


Educational Achievement Certificates:

Sgt. 1st Class Leslie D. Lewis, CIO

Chief Warrant Officer 3 Cortez Frazier, Sr., Defense Distribution Susquehanna Pennsylvania (DDSP), New Cumberland

1st Sgt. Jerry L. Krentz, Allegheny District Veterinary Command

Sgt 1st Class  Briggett L. Bennett, CSL

Staff Sgt. Robert L. Dodson, DAA

Spc. Kenyarda A. Chambers, CIO


Spc. Nicholas R. Pier, DSES               USAWC Certificate of Achievement

Ken Malick, Dunham U.S. Army Health Clinic    USAWC Certificate of Appreciation


The following were recognized for their hard work during Jim Thorpe Sports Days:


Karen Wright, Sports Office                USAWC Certificate of Appreciation (Sports Day)

Chuck Gentile, Sports Office

Nate Wright, Sports Office

Al Farris, Sports Office

Jim Price, Sports Office

Bill Hartman, Sports Office

Butch Hoerner, Sports Office

Chad Johnson, Sports Office

Ken Sjoberg, Sports Office

Bob Salviano, Youth Office

Kerry Black, Army Lodging

Fred Dupert, Motor Pool

Kim Gardner, LVCC

Terry Myers, Golf Course


The following received Commandant's Coins:


Maj. Carla Campbell, DOIM               

Timothy Herman, CIO                            

Dixie Magni, DOIM

Sharon Musgrave, Remtech Services, Inc.

Barry Farquhar, FPO

Frank Magni, DPW


Length of Service Awards:

Rick Condran, LVCC                     15 Years

Ken Sjoberg, Thorpe Hall Gym     10 Years





Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Water, warm weather brings West Nile warning

 May 12, 2004 -- In 2003, the West Nile virus was found in 19 Pennsylvania counties to include Cumberland County. So far in 2004, the surveillance systems have reported no positive cases in this area.

    "West Nile virus was detected in Pennsylvania for the first time last year. Fortunately, no person here was diagnosed with the virus, but last year's experience makes it clear that Pennsylvania's surveillance effort must continue," said Robert S. Zimmerman Jr., State Health Secretary.

    Cumberland County has had a mosquito-surveillance program in place since the late 1970's. Recently, the county was awarded additional funding to expand this program, according to John Connoloy, director, Cumberland County Public Services. Twenty-eight mosquito samples have been collected so far, but none have been positive for the virus.

    Just as county officials are concerned about the pending mosquito season, post and Army officials have issued warnings for Soldiers and family members.

    West Nile virus is a concern on Carlisle Barracks because the virus has been found in some birds and mosquitoes on or not far from the installation, according to Kenneth Malick, chief, environmental health, Dunham U.S. Army Health Clinic.

    Throughout the spring and summer the Directorate of Public Works will be identifying potential breeding sites for mosquito vectors and will be taking measures to correct any problems before they occur. The Dunham Environmental Health Section will be trapping mosquitoes and sending them to the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine-North for testing. 

    If the virus is found on the installation DPW, the Dunham Environmental Health Section and USACHPPM-North will work in concert to develop and implement a strategy to combat the virus, according to Malick.

    West Nile Virus surfaced in New York City in the summer of 1999. There have been numerous cases of the virus reported throughout the eastern United States. West Nile virus is primarily spread by Culex mosquitoes. 

    Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, which may circulate the virus in their blood for a few days. After an incubation period of ten days to two weeks, infected mosquitoes can then transmit West Nile virus to humans and animals while biting to take blood.

    The virus is located in the mosquito's salivary glands. During blood feeding, the virus is then injected into the animal or human, where it then multiplies and may cause illness. Most infections are mild and symptoms may include fever, headache, and body aches, often with skin rash and swollen lymph glands. A more severe infection may be marked by headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, paralysis and, rarely, death.

    Residents of housing and building occupants should immediately report any dead birds to the environmental health office at 245-3902. Technicians will respond, collect the bird and have the bird sent out for testing.






Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

AHEC hosts open house

May 7, 2004 - Carlisle Barracks staff, faculty and students got a sneak peek at the new Military History Institute facility May 7. The $13.4 million, 67,000 square foot building will replace the aging Upton Hall, and will open in August.

    This building will be home to historic holdings, which includes more than 14 million items ranging from military documents and books to personal papers and photographs. The institute is open to the general public. 

    "This building is a state-of-the-art place for anyone who wants to conduct research on military history," said Maj. Michael Lynch, Army Heritage and Education Center operations director. "They will really enjoy it here."

New stacks allow for ease of research

    "To help make the holding easier to find we've added six space saver, sliding electronic stack areas," Lynch said. "Each of the stack areas will be climate controlled to allow for the preservation and safekeeping of our holdings."  The stacks are operated electronically, which allow AHEC personnel to move the stacks in order to access what has been requested. When the holdings have been moved over from Upton Hall, these stacks will only be 57 percent full, allowing for further expansion of the collection.


New reading room

    The new reading room will also allow for a more comfortable environment for researchers. It has the ability to hold 80 people, and is equipped with 22 computers for public access - 14 to search the MHI online catalog, and eight for general use.

    "You won't feel cramped anymore when you come to do research or look around, " Lynch said. "There will be plenty of room for people to spread out their materials and not feel like they're getting in someone else's way."

Secure area for classified materials

    During the tour, visitors saw the new area that will be used for observing classified materials. The room will allow space and opportunities for researchers with Top Secret clearances.

    "This is probably the last time most of us will ever be in this room," joked Lynch. "But it will give a secure area for researchers with the necessary clearance and provide them enough room to do what they need to do."

Visitors love the new look

    After walking through the new building, visitors were impressed.

    "This is an absolutely first-class facility," said Col. David "Slim" Connors, the Air Force Senior Service Representative at the U.S. Army War College. "This is a great facility, designed for and manned by professional and enthusiastic historians and it really shows. This place has the ability to make a huge impact on not only the Carlisle community, but all over the country. "

    Connors went on to point out why he felt the research facility was so important.

    "When this facility is complete, researchers from all over can see the story of the American Soldier, their contributions to our nation, our values and our way of life. That's why doing it right was so important and this is a fabulous building."

    Other visitors felt the same way.   

    "The new building looks like it will be a great place for people to do research," said Spc. Sandra Gonzalez, chaplain assistant. "I think the new MHI will be a great addition to Carlisle Barracks."

    The grand opening ceremony for the new AHEC is scheduled for Sept. 24.





Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Singh top speaker in Class of 2004


May 6, 2004 -- Three raps of the gavel silenced the room. More than 50 pairs of eyes watched as the official carried the envelope containing the contest results to the podium.

    Clearing his throat, the master of ceremony announced the first runner-up and the audience cheered and clapped. "And the winner is.."

    Brigadier Gen. Bikram Singh is the top speaker for the U.S. Army War College Class of 2004.

    Singh, an International Fellow from India, earned this honor at the 6th Annual USAWC Speech Contest held May 6 at the Letort View Community Center. His speech, based on the contest theme "The Military Family: The Unsung Heroes of Our Armed Forces," compared the role of military family to the role of water in the growth process.

    "The military family is like a hidden pool of water, flowing underground helping the grass to grow," Singh said. "The positive message a Soldier receives from his family helps him to be successful.

    "I think my entire service with the Indian Army I have been aware of the challenges military families face. These silent heroes, unmindful of their personal stressful and strenuous conditions, have always inspired Soldiers to deliver with zeal, Úlan, dedication and courage."

    First runner-up Col. Michael Wilmer selected "Thank the Families" for his topic because "our military families do amazing things every day and don't get nearly the amount of recognition they deserve."

    This was the first speech contest Wilmer had ever participated in but the experience and knowledge he gained from this instruction and contest has helped him tremendously.

    "People have always told me I am a good speaker, but this year I've learned how to prepare to speak on a much wider variety of topics, I've refined my own personal style, and I've increased my confidence for speaking at events beyond Army briefings and military social functions," Wilmer said.

    This contest is part of an elective course in the USAWC Communicative Arts Program that applies the principles and formats of Toastmasters International. Students enrolled in the Executive Public Speaking course must complete academic requirements in addition to the speaking requirements of Toastmasters International.

    "This contest provides an opportunity for proficient speakers to gain contest experience and it's an interesting educational program for Toastmasters and the general public," said Lt. Col. Steve Volkman, contest chair.

    Contestants are awarded points in three critical areas: content, which included speech development, effectiveness and speech value; delivery - physical aspects, voice and manner; and language. A total of 100 points are possible.

    "The most rewarding aspect of public speaking comes when you know you've touched your audience.  Maybe you'll catch a tear in one's eye, or a head nod of agreement, or a standing ovation.  Touching the audience is even more satisfying if you are able to win a hostile audience over to your side or enlighten an audience who is interested in your topic," Volkman said.

    Other participants in the contest were Col. G. Michael Thorne, whose theme was  "Maybe it's Not About Me" and Lt. Col. Chris Robertson, who delivered a speech entitled " The Ties that Bind."

    Singh will receive a certificate and cash award at the USAWC Class of 2004 graduation ceremony June 12, and each participating speaker will receive a trophy in recognition of his personal achievement.


CDC celebrates Mother's Day

    Mothers, grandmothers, aunts and Nana's were all invited to the annual Moore Child Development Center's Mother's Day Tea May 7. Children gave cards, pictures and other gifts they made to their guests and also shared a cup of  "tea" to show their love and appreciation.

    The poems listed below can be found at


For All That You Have Given Me

By Dimitri Shostakovich

For all that you have given me,
I can return but love. For you
Bound up the wounds I did not see
And gave me hopes and passions new.

I can return but love for you,
Whose unmoved faith my heart did move,
And gave me hopes and passions new,
                                                                And loved me till I turned to love.

Whose unmoved faith did my heart move?
The mother of my heart, not blood,
Who loved me till I turned to love.
And I became the soul I would.

The mother of my heart, not blood,
Bound up the wounds I did not see.
And I became the soul I would
For all that you have given me.

Grandmothers Are Mothers Who Are Grand

Sequenced by Barry Taylor


Grandmothers are mothers who are grand,
Restoring the sense that our most precious things
Are those that do not change much over time.
No love of childhood is more sublime,
Demanding little, giving on demand,
More inclined than most to grant the wings
On which we fly off to enchanted lands.
Though grandmothers must serve as second mothers,
Helping out with young and restless hearts,
Each has all the patience wisdom brings,
Remembering our passions more than others,
Soothing us with old and well-honed arts.


Mommy, I Love You

By Hanspeter Tschupp


Mommy, I love you
For all that you do.
I'll kiss you and hug you
'Cause you love me, too.

You feed me and need me
To teach you to play,
So smile 'cause I love you
On this Mother's Day.


Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Carlisle Barracks - landmark post in Army


  May 4, 2004 -- Carlisle Barracks was recognized once again as a Tree City USA.

      "It certainly is an oasis to the Carlisle area and I think it benefits everyone, everyday," said Bruce Kile, Pennsylvania State Forester. "Since trees live longer than people, much of what is done must be done in an unselfish way for future generations."

    Kile presented Carlisle Barracks with its 13th consecutive honor as Tree City USA and its eighth Tree City USA Growth Award at the annual Arbor Day/Earth Day observance April 30.

    Close to 5,000 trees are growing on post according to Keith Bailey, post biological science technician. Each tree is inventoried as to size, health and species, and most have been tagged to assist with tracking Bailey said.

    "When Carlisle Barracks removes one tree, we plant three to take its place," he said.

    There are many types of trees planted on the installation including Larch trees, Paper Bark Maple, Dawn Red Wood and Ginkgo Biloba trees. The trees in Heritage Park are direct descendents from famous historic trees, and there are more than 150 trees planted in Commandant's Grove -- all native species of Pennsylvania.

    "The tree planted for the 2003 Tree City USA program came from the crash site of Flight 93, which crashed on Sept. 11, 2001," Bailey said.


Want to win a free large pizza and learn more about Carlisle Barracks trees? See the Banner Contest 



Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Soldiers learn dangers, damage done by homemade explosives 


  May 4, 2004 -- Bombs and improvised explosive devices are responsible for numerous deaths and injuries of service members every day. These incidents do not only occur on the battlefield. They happen on training ranges, during field exercises, and sometimes, in the work area.

    The materials used to make bombs can cost as little as $5 and can be purchase at most electronics and convenience stores according to Officer Ryan Morris, commander, Penn State Police Hazardous Device Disposal Team.

    Morris and his team demonstrated the affects of bombs and explosive devices to Soldiers from U.S. Army Garrison and Dunham Army Health Clinic April 29 at the Penn Township Volunteer Fire Department in Newville.

    "It was really awesome," said Sgt. Karla Illingsworth, executive services, U.S. Army War College. "We got to see the before and after when something blew up and you usually don't get that in larger units. It was really cool."



    "I was amazed at the amount of common household chemicals and common tools used to make these devices," said Staff Sgt. Romayne Leake, Global Command Control System-Army.

    Morris's team, also known as the Bomb Squad, used varying amounts and combinations of black powder, dynamite and energetic material to demonstrate the sound, vibration and destruction caused by bombs and explosive devices. Most of these components are easily accessible.

    "Bombs are easy to make but hard to detect," Morris said. "It only cost between $100-$120 for a case of dynamite from any commercial blasting site, and all the components to make a bomb can be found inside a musical greeting card."

    "This is kind of scary, knowing that it takes so little to do so much damage," Leake said. "It's good to know what we may be up against if we ever come across something that doesn't look right."

    The Penn State Bomb Squad is a Federal Bureau of Investigation accredited unit, which means it meets the national guidelines for staffing, equipment and training.



Tom Zimmerman, Public Affairs Office

ESPC project enters home-stretch


May 4, 2004 -- All that's left is a short list of tasks and some landscaping for the post Environmental Savings Performance Contract, which began in March 2003.

    More than 100 wells were drilled throughout the historic post's landscape as part of the project, and new equipment was installed to take advantage of the earth's relatively constant temperature to provide heating, cooling, and hot water for 109 buildings on post.

    The contract will now go into the operations and maintenance phase, according to Bill Tarman, an engineer with the post Directorate of Public Works. 

    "The contactor, Co-Energy Group will have a staff of three people here on post for the next 17 years to handle the maintenance and operations of the units," Tarman said. "They'll handle all of the maintenance necessary to keep the units operating at their highest levels, and replace units when necessary."

    This change will not mean a major change for post residents who have to call in to report a problem with their heating or air conditioning.

    "Residents will still call the service order desk just like they would for any other problem," Tarman said. The service order desk can be reached at 245-4019. Tarman pointed out that there will need to be maintenance performed every six months on the units, in order to make sure they continue to perform efficiently.

    "We'll make sure that residents are notified in advance when their units will need to be serviced, Tarman said.



    One of the big questions for people at Carlisle Barracks is what's going to happen with the geo-thermal pumps given the fact that the Residential Community Initiatives will begin work in the coming months on the post housing.

    "We had identified housing previously that would need to be replaced before ESPC began," Tarman said. "So we won't be demolishing houses that just had work done to them for the ESPC project." The first housing area identified to be demolished is the College Arms Apartments. Tarman was unsure if the wells dug for the current housing would be able to be used for new or existing housing created under RCI.

    "It all depends on what the housing looks like, where it's located and things like that," Tarman said. "But that's why we didn't plan on installing the new units in housing we knew would be renovated or demolished shortly after ESPC was done."


How do the heat pumps work?

    The way the systems work is simple, explained Tarman. Ground water from a well that is several hundred feet deep is circulated through the heating and cooling system. During the winter, the water collects heat from the earth and carries it through the system and into the building, warming the interior air. During the summer, the system reverses itself to cool the building by pulling heat from the building, transferring it to the water in the system, then circulating that water through the well, which cools it. The system also helps heat water for use inside the building during both seasons.

    "The biggest difference is with the normal heating systems, you can feel an initial blast of hot air.  With the geothermal heat pumps, the air runs continuously and you don't get that initial blast.  Also, you won't t hear that noise in the middle of the night that wakes you up," Tarman said.

    The other important aspect of the ESPC project is the money it will save the government and the positive effects on the environment. The systems are electrically powered and utilize "geothermal" or "ground source" heat pumps to get the work done and will allow the post to save in maintenance and manpower costs by shutting down central steam plant.

    "The savings could be as much as 40-45 percent annually on heating and cooling costs, said Lt. Col. John Koivisto, garrison commander. The environmental impacts are equivalent to reducing 735 automobiles or planting 1000 acres of trees.

    "This type of heating has been called the most environmentally-friendly, cost effective and efficient conditioning system available by the EPA," Koivisto said.


Staff Sgt. Krishna M. Gamble, Public Affairs Office

Annual campaign more than halfway to goal

    May 3, 3004 -- As of May 3, close to 60 percent of the $25,000 goal had been collected, said Cora Johnson, post Army Emergency Relief assistant officer.

    Anyone can contribute to AER. Ninety-six percent of all contributions go to assist Soldiers and family members with emergency financial assistance for utilities, food, funeral expenses, emergency travel, loss of funds, medical, dental and hospital and other emergency expenses.

    Griffin Services Inc., the contractor for the post maintenance work,  donated $1,000 to AER last month.

    "AER does not provide assistance for divorce, marriages, ordinary leave, bad checks, court fees and fines, bail or loss of income tax refund," Johnson said. "AER is not a solution to financial problems. Its purpose is to meet any emergency and financial need."

    The 2004 AER campaign for Carlisle Barracks ends May 31. Active duty and retiree Soldiers may contribute by monthly allotments. Check or cash contributions are also accepted.   

    To make a contribution, contact your organization's representative, call Cora Johnson at 245-4720 or email


Help keep Carlisle Barracks clean

    May 4, 2004 -- Post residents and employees are asked to help keep the post clean by making sure they properly dispose of all trash in the proper ways. Trash receptacles are provided around post for waste and there are other materials that should be recycled when possible.


    Post residents are reminded that certain materials should be placed in the curbside recycling containers when placing their trash out for pick-up. These materials include:

  • Newspaper

  • Aluminum and Tin Cans

  • Brown, Green, and Clear glass jars or bottles

  • Plastics #1, #2


    Post employees are also reminded that some office materials should be recycled when possible as well.  These include:

  • Old Corrugated cardboard

  • High-grade office paper

  • Mixed office paper

  • Aluminum and tin cans

  • Brown, Green, and clear glass jars or bottles

  • Plastics #1, #2